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024  Convolvulus arvensis L.

Convolvulaceae

Nome comune: vilucchio comune

Convolvulus arvensis (Field Bindweed) is a species of bindweed, native to Europe and Asia. It is a climbing or creeping herbaceous perennial plant growing to 0.5-2 m high. The leaves are spirally arranged, linear to arrowhead-shaped, 2-5 cm long and alternate, with a 1-3 cm petiole. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, 1-2.5 cm diameter, white or pale pink, with five slightly darker pink radial stripes. Flowering occurs in the mid-summer, when white to pale pink, funnel-shaped flowers develop. Flowers are approximately 0.75-1 in. (1.9-2.5 cm) across and are subtended by small bracts. Fruit are light brown, rounded and 1/8 in. (0.3 cm) wide. Each fruit contains 2 seeds that are eaten by birds and can remain viable in the soil for decades. There are two varieties: Convolvulus arvensis var. arvensis. Leaves broader. Convolvulus arvensis var. linearifolius. Leaves narrower. Although it produces attractive flowers, it is often unwelcome in gardens as a nuisance weed due to its rapid growth and choking of cultivated plants. It was most likely was introduced into North America as a contaminant in crop seed as early as 1739, as an invasive species. Plants typically inhabit roadsides, grasslands and also along streams.. Its dense mats invade agricultural fields and reduce crop yields; it is estimated that crop losses due to this plant in the United States exceeded US$377 million in the year 1998 alone. [1] Other common names, mostly obsolete, include lesser bindweed, European bindweed, withy wind (in basket willow crops), perennial morning glory, smallflowered morning glory, creeping jenny, and possession vine. It is called leli in Punjabi. Ecological Impacts: Field bindweed intertwines and topples native species. It competes with other species for sunlight, moisture and nutrients. It poses threats to restoration efforts and riparian corridors by choking out grasses and forbs. It can decrease habitat biodiversity. It is one of the most serious weeds of agricultural fields in temperate regions of the world. Toxicity: Mildly toxic to grazing animals Control and Management: Field bindweed is difficult to eradicate because the seeds remain viable in soil for up to 20 years. One plant can produce up to 500 seeds. The deep, extensive root system stores carbohydrates and proteins and allows it to sprout repeatedly from fragments and rhizomes following removal of aboveground growth. Manual- Discing, tilling or hand pulling Chemical- Apply herbicide 2,4-D or glyphosate (Roundup); applications that trans-locate to roots, before seeds set Other approaches: Research suggests that shading will help control this species; mulching using paper, straw, wood chips, or black plastic can be effective in certain areas Natural Enemies: Eight fungi and ten arthropods have been found on members of the genus Convlvulus. References: www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/conarv/all.html, www.plantatlas.usf.edu/images.asp?plantID=1755, http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=noxious.cgi Invasive Plants of Asia Origin Established in the US and their Natural Enemies p. 58-59 WSSA-1,000 Weeds of North America: An Identification Guide ELEMENT STEWARDSHIP ABSTRACT- http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/convarv.rtf Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules in the US - www.lucidcentral.org/keys/FNW/FNW%20seeds/html/fact%20sheets/Convolvulus%20arvensis.htm